The equine influenza (flu) virus is specific to horses and causes a multitude of symptoms including a raised temperature, lethargy and coughing. Here, vet Ricky Farr MRCVS answers seven common questions about equine flu.Read More
During the healing process, it's important to manage the wound to limit the degree of scarring.Read More
Here, we've asked Dr Patrick Pollock, a vet from Dick Vet Equine, Georgie Holls, the founder of the Veterinary Wound Library, and Bandaging Angels, for their wound care do's and don'ts.Read More
Choke is a distressing situation for horses and owners. Vet Katherine Wright, from Minister Equine Veterinary Clinic in York, explains how to recognise and prevent this terrifying conditionRead More
With Expert Vet Gil Riley, we learn how to apply a poultice to your horse's foot.Read More
Ringworm can linger in wood for years which means your horse can catch it from leaning over fences for a long period of time, with Pool House Equine Clinic Vet Gil Riley, we find out more.Read More
It's one of the most common causes of lameness affecting many horses as they age. Vet Matthew Tong explains the latest on this debilitating disease.
The best way to prevent and manage arthritis is to ensure your horse's body is working as efficiently as it can.
Regular farrier visits to balance the feet and help prevent uneven loading on the joints, keeping your horse at his ideal weight, and a regular, sensible exercise plan will all go a long way to helping your horse's joints work as nature intended.
It's also a good idea to make sure your horse is always well warmed up before strenuous exercise and well cooled down after to help protect his joints from excess wear and tear.
A good quality joint supplement that boosts your horse's levels of glucosamine and chondroitin (both help to build healthy cartilage) is recommended, and your vet will be able to advise you as to which product to invest in.
While many people reach for this kind of supplement only when stiffness becomes an issue, it may be more beneficial to give it long-term, from a younger age, especially if your horse is conformationally challenged. For example, if he's pigeon-toed.
Arthritis: The key facts
- Arthritis is one of the leading causes of lameness in the UK, and is believed to be responsible for 60% of all cases.
- Today's more sophisticated diagnosis tools include nuclear scintigraphy (better known as a bone scan) a radioactive substance that is injected that 'binds' to areas of active bony change within a joint.
- These can then be picked up hot spots by a scanner. An MRI scan - which can also be used on the horse's lower leg - can also be used to detect changes in the joint and it's surrounding soft tissue.
- Riding too fast or hard over poor terrain - be it hard, soft or boggy - can increase the chances of joint trauma and in turn predispose the joint to arthritis. So it's vital you ride with care.
Tooth decay – known as dental caries to vets – is a condition where dental tissues in the horse’s mouth have been eroded and can lead to problems including infection and tooth fracture.Read More
In a similar way to people reacting to some insect bites, with sweet itch, there’s an intense desire to itch the affected area.Read More
Headshaking is, as the name suggests, a condition where the horse involuntarily shakes his head to varying degrees.Read More
Most vettings are what's called five-stage clinical examinations, which involve a vet looking at the horse in-hand, under saddle and after exercise. Here's a guide of the five stages.Read More
Colic is a general term used to describe abdominal pain. It has many causes and it's symptoms can vary from mild to extreme.Read More
Here, equine vet Lucinda Ticehurst explains how to reduce the risk of your horse developing a foot abscess.Read More
Equine vet, Janina Kutscha, explains exactly what rain scald is and how you can prevent it.Read More
In a muddle about worming drugs? Fear not as our expert vet Kirstie Pickles provides some helpful advice.Read More
If you see a swelling on your horse’s leg, your first reaction might be to panic questioning; will it take ages to mend, cost me a fortune and potentially affect his future? But don’t panic. With good management, most leg problems can be prevented and early intervention from your vet will more often than not lead to successful treatment.Read More
Vet Nick Graham of Severn Edge Equine Vets, explains all about the common fungal skin infection known as ringworm.Read More
Kissing spines is a painful condition for those suffering from it. Here, vet David Rutherford from Fellowes Farm Equine Clinic explains more about the condition and the different treatment options available.
The term ‘Kissing spines’ is a term used to describe a condition where the pieces of bone that project upwards from a horse’s back bone (the dorsal spinous processes, or DSPs) become too close together and start to grate on each other, causing pain.
It’s most commonly found in the middle of a horse’s back under the saddle region, but can occur anywhere along the spine. It’s a progressive condition that usually affects horses aged between seven and 14 and is quite common in larger breeds, particularly Thoroughbreds, but rare in ponies.
Horses with kissing spines will struggle to perform well under saddle, and show signs of pain in their back – though this discomfort can present itself in different ways. The first thing you may notice is a lack of forward movement, especially in canter. Bucking, refusing jumps or reacting when the girth is tightened or the rider mounts are other signs.
To diagnose kissing spines, the first step is usually to take radiographs of the DSPs. Kissing spines is suspected when the gap between the DSPs narrows and, in some cases, the bones are touching. Often the bony margins will have areas of increased density (which shows as white on an x-ray) and areas where the bone has partly dissolved (black on an x-ray).
In very severe cases the diagnosis may be based on x-rays alone, but this can be problematic as some horses with quite nasty radiographic abnormalities can in fact be completely pain-free in this area. Therefore either bone scanning, or nerve blocking the area and observing an improvement in ridden performance, is usually necessary to confirm the problem.
Can you prevent it?
As kissing spines is a naturally occurring, progressive condition, prevention isn’t possible. There are, however, some things that can be done to help reduce the risk. Experts believe there’s likely to be a genetic component to kissing spines, so breeding from known sufferers should be considered very carefully. In addition, it’s wise to avoid any ridden exercise until a horse is approaching his or her skeletal maturity at three to four years of age. This will give his bones the best chance to develop as they should.
Before you buy a horse, ask your vet to take survey radiographs of his back as part of the pre-purchase exam. Sadly, if a defect is found, this won’t mean the horse will avoid developing kissing spines in the future, but it will at least minimise your risk as a potential buyer.
Finally, bear in mind that the condition is worsened by the action of riding your horse, so symptoms will develop quicker the more work you do with him.
How is it treated?
Once a diagnosis of kissing spines has been confirmed one of three routes can be taken:
While it won’t cure the problem, medical treatment will allow the horse to continue working. Treatment consists of a combination of oral painkillers, anti-inflammatory cortisone injections into the affected part of the back, physiotherapy and altered training methods. This will improve the situation, but rarely resolves it and, as the condition worsens, it becomes less effective.
2. Surgical treatment
Surgery can be used to create a larger gap between the impinging bones. In some situations wedges of bone are removed, and in others splitting the ligament between the bones is sufficient. Often the procedure is carried out under standing sedation with local anaesthetic, rather than under full general anaesthesia. The exact method of treatment will depend on how severe the impingement is, and on the preferences of surgeon and owner.
3. No treatment
No treatment will ultimately result in retirement or euthanasia.
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Equine Gastric Ulceration Syndrome (EGUS) can affect any type of horse or foal in any environment. If your horse is displaying any unusual signs such as poor appetite, body condition and performance, changes in attitude or acute, recurrent colic it’s important to speak to your vet immediately, advises Zoetis vet Dr Wendy Talbot.
Equine Gastric Ulceration Syndrome (EGUS) is a serious and common condition,1,2 with approximately 93%of racehorses, 65% of performance horses, 54% of leisure horses and 50% of foals shown to be affected.2,3,4 The condition is associated with injury to the inner lining of the oesophagus, stomach and upper part of the intestine.2
Horses produce a steady flow of stomach acid to help digestion.1 As a protective mechanism their naturally acidic stomach contents are buffered by alkaline saliva produced in response to regular eating and by the food itself.2 Our domestication of horses, particularly stabling and restriction of grazing, has reduced the time our horses spend eating, resulting in prolonged periods when the stomach is empty, causing reduced production of saliva. In addition feeding grain (rather than fibre) can produce types of acid which contribute to the already acidic environment of the stomach.1
The usual signs of EGUS may include poor appetite, poor body condition, poor performance, changes in attitude and acute and recurrent colic. In adult horses clinical signs may appear or progress as training intensity, speed and workload increase.2 However, in some horses the signs may be vague. In foals the signs may be very subtle and progress rapidly so it is important to contact your vet immediately if you have any concerns.2
There are many risk factors that may cause your horse or foal to suffer from gastric ulcers. These include stress, intense exercise, a high-grain diet, intermittent feeding, inappropriate management and other illnesses.1,2,4 The only accurate way to definitively diagnose or monitor EGUS is by gastroscopy,1 which involves a vet examining your horse’s oesophagus, stomach and upper part of the intestine using a gastroscope.
Wendy Talbot, vet at Zoetis, said: “EGUS is a serious condition but once diagnosed it can usually be treated very effectively with management changes and orally administered therapy to help the ulcers heal. If you think your horse could be suffering from EGUS you must contact your vet immediately.”
1 Bell RJ, et al. Equine gastric ulcer syndrome in adult horses: a review. NZ Vet J 2007; 55 (1): 1-12. 2 Picavet M-Th. EQUINE GASTRIC ULCER SYNDROME. Proceedings of the First European Equine Nutrition & Health Congress. February 9 2002. Antwerp Zoo, Belgium.. 3. Murray MJ, et al. Prevalence of gastric lesions in foals without signs of gastric disease: an endoscopic survey. Equine Vet J 1990; 22(1): 6-8. 4. Sykes BW, et al. European College of Equine Internal Medicine Consensus Statement—Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome in Adult Horses. J Vet Intern Med 2015;29:1288–1299
Zoetis is the leading animal health company, dedicated to supporting its customers and their businesses. Building on more than 60 years of experience in animal health, Zoetis discovers, develops, manufactures and markets veterinary vaccines and medicines, complemented by diagnostic products and genetic tests and supported by a range of services. In 2014, the company generated annual revenue of $4.8 billion. With approximately 10,000 employees worldwide at the beginning of 2015, Zoetis serves veterinarians, livestock producers and people who raise and care for farm and companion animals with sales of its products in 120 countries. For more information, visit www.zoetis.com.